详细信息
id
17
标题
NCEP/NCAR再分析CD-ROM资料集(73-99)
描述

NCEP/NCAR再分析CD-ROM资料集(1973-1999年)
资料集编号: DS027
资料集名称: NCEP/NCAR再分析CD-ROM资料集
责任者: 资料中心
索取号: C6001-C6025
索引名: ncacd
记录年代: 1973年1月—1999年12月
区域: 全球
要素: 见附录
编排: 网格点,高斯网格和经纬度网格
统计特征: 逐日逐次、逐日平均、月平均
详介:
观测次数、时间:
站数/层数、层次:
载体说明:
数量: 28片CD-ROM光盘
缺测:
数据来源: NCAR
质量检验:
参考文献: 见附录
附 录:
AT00Z
315K, 330K, 450K 0 L pot. vorticity (PV), T (TMP), U/V (UGRD/VGRD)
AT00Z12Z
surface 0 L precipitable water (PWAT)

surface 6 G pressure (PRES)

2 meter 6 G q (SPFH), T (TMP)

10 meter 6 G U/V (UGRD/VGRD)

1000 mb 0 L Z (HGT) *

850 mb 0 L RH (RH), T (TMP), U/V (UGRD/VGRD), Z (HGT) *

700 mb 0 L Z (HGT) *

500 mb 0 L RH (RH), T (TMP), U/V (UGRD/VGRD), omega (VVEL)

500 mb 0 L Z (HGT) *

300 mb 0 L Z (HGT) *

200 mb 0 L T (TMP), U/V (UGRD/VGRD), Z (HGT) *

* in HGT.PRS

AT12Z

100, 50, 20 mb 0 L T (TMP), U/V (UGRD/VGRD), Z (HGT)

DAILY

surface Da G downward short wave flux (DSWRF)

surface Da G latent/sensible heat flux (LHTFL, SHTFL)

surface Da G net long/short wave flux (NLWRS, NSWRS)

surface Da G precipitation rate (PRATE)

surface Da G skin temperature (TMP) (height adjusted SST)

surface Da G momentum flux (neg. wind stress) (UFLX/VFLX)

surface Da G upward longwave flux (ULWRF)

surface Da G momentum flux (neg. wind stress) (UFLX/VFLX)

surface Da G corrected precipitation rate (XPRATE)

mean sea level ob G sea surface temperature (TMP)

2 meter Da G max/min temperature (TMAX,TMIN), not avail 82-93

top Da G upward short/long wave flux (USWRF, ULWRF)

FIXED

surface ob G surface elevation (HGT)

surface ob G land mask (LAND)

surface ob L land mask (LAND, file:LAND25.SFC)

IEEE/CROSS

theta levels M0 T N**2 (BVFS), pressure (PRES), pot. vorticity (PV),

theta levels M0 T rel. humidity (RH), T (TMP), U/V (UGRD/VGRD),

theta levels M0 T mass weighted U/V

pressure levels M0 P U'V' (CBMZW), V'T' (CBTMW), V'q' (CBVQ)

pressure levels M0 P Z (HGT), rel. humidity (RH), q (SPFH),

pressure levels M0 P meridional stream function (STREAM), T (TMP)

pressure levels M0 P U/V (UGRD/VGRD), omega (VVEL)

IEEE/CROSSVAR

pressure levels V0 P Z (HGT), rel. humidity (RH), q (SPFH),

pressure levels V0 P T (TMP), U/V (UGRD/VGRD), omega (VVEL)

MONTHLY/ATxxZ, xx=00,06,12,18

surface ma G convective/total precipitation rate (CPRAT/PRATE)

2 meter m6 G q (SPFH), T (TMP)

10 meter m6 G U/V (UGRD/VGRD)

925, 850 mb m0 L q (SPFH), T (TMP)

925-600 mb m0 L U (UGRD), V (VGRD)

top ma G upward long wave flux (ULWRF)

MONTHLY/OTHER

0-10,10-200 cm M6 G soil wetness (SOILW)

0-10,10-200, 300 cm M6 G soil temperature (TMP)

mean sea level M0 L pressure (PRES)

2 meter M6 G q (SPFH), T (TMP)

10 meter M6 G U/V (UGRD/VGRD)

col Ma G cloud fraction (TCDC)

column, top Ma G long/short wave cloud forcing (CFNLF/CFNSF)

top Ma G downward short wave flux (DSWRF)

top Ma g upward long/short wave flux (ULWRF/USWRF)

MONTHLY/OTHERVAR

0-10,10-200 cm V6 G soil wetness (SOILW)

0-10,10-200, 300 cm V6 G soil temperature (TMP)

mean sea level V0 L pressure (PRES)

2 meter V6 G q (SPFH), T (TMP)

10 meter V6 G U/V (UGRD/VGRD)

MONTHLY/PRS

1000-10 mb M0 L U'V' (CBMZW), U'T' (CBTZW), V'T' (CBTMW)

1000-100 mb M0 L U'omega' (CBUW), T'omega' (CBTW)

1000-300 mb M0 L U'q' (CBUQ) , V'q' (CBVQ), omega'q' (CBQW)

1000-10 mb M0 L Z (HGT), T (TMP), U/V (UGRD/VGRD),

1000-100 mb M0 L omega (VVEL)

1000-300 mb M0 L rel. humidity (RH), q (SPFH),

* above fields are in ALL.PRS

850, 200 mb M0 L stream function (STRM), velocity pot (VPOT)

levels = 1000 925 850 700 600 500 400 300 250

200 150 100 70 50 30 20 10 mb

MONTHLY/PRSVAR

1000-10 mb V0 L Z (HGT), T (TMP), U/V (UGRD/VGRD)

1000-100 mb V0 L omega (VVEL)

1000-300 mb V0 L rel. humidity (RH), q (SPFH)

* above fields are in ALL.PRS

MONTHLY/SFC

surface Ma G long/short wave cloud forcing (CFNLF/CFNSF)

surface Ma G convective/total precipitation (CPRAT/PRATE)

surface Mo G ice concentration (ICEC)

surface Ma G sensible/latent heat flux (SHTFL/LHTFL)

surface Ma G net long/short wave flux (NLWRS/NSWRS)

surface M6 G potential evaporation (PEVPR)

surface M0 L potential temperature (POT)

surface M6 G pressure, 6 hour forecast (PRES)

surface M0 L pressure, analysis, (PRES, file:PRESF00)

surface M0 L precipitable water, analysis (PWAT)

surface Mg L precipitable water, 1st guess (PWAT, file:PWATGES)

surface Mr G runoff per 6 hours (RUNOF)

surface M6 G skin temperature (height adjusted SST) (TMP)

mean sea level Ma G observed SST (TMP)

surface Ma G momentum flux (neg of wind stress) (UFLX/VFLX)

surface Ma G upward long/short wave flux (ULWRF/USWRF)

surface M6 G snow depth, water equiv. (WEASD)

surface Ma G corrected precipitation (XPRATE)

MONTHLY/SFCVAR

surface Va G convective/total precipitation (CPRAT/PRATE)

surface Va G sensible/latent heat flux (SHTFL/LHTFL)

surface V6 G potential evaporation (PEVPR)

surface V0 L potential temperature (POT)

surface V6 G pressure, 6 hour forecast (PRES)

surface V0 L pressure, analysis, (PRES, file:PRESF00)

surface V0 L precipitable water, analysis (PWAT)

surface Vr G runoff per 6 hours (RUNOF)

surface V6 G skin temperature (height adjusted SST) (TMP)

surface Va G momentum flux (neg of wind stress) (UFLX/VFLX)

surface V6 G snow depth, water equiv. (WEASD)

MONTHLY/THT

270-650K M0 L Montgomery streamfn (MNTSF), pressure (PRES)

270-650K M0 L pot. vorticity (PV), U/V (UGRD/VGRD)

270-650K M0 L mass-weighted U/V (UMAS/VMAS)

levels = 270, 280, 290, 300, 315, 330, 350, 400, 450, 550, 650K

MONTHLY/THTVAR

270-650K V0 L Montgomery streamfn (MNTSF), Pressure (PRES)

270-650K V0 L pot. vorticity (PV), U/V (UGRD/VGRD)

270-650K V0 L mass-weighted U/V (UMAS/VMAS)

270-650K

OBS

surface Mo L GPCP precipitation est. (PRATE, file=GPCPRAIN)

surface Mo L Xie-Arkin precip. est. (PRATE, file=CMPORAIN)

top Do L upward long-wave radiation (1974 onwards) (ULWRF)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

0= Analysis

24= 24 hour period (00Z-24Z), for Tmin, Tmax

6= 6 hour Forecast

A= 0-6 hour average/accumulation of forecast starting from the analysis

D6= average of 4 6-hour forecast (average of 00Z, 06Z, 12Z, and 18Z cycles)

Da= 00Z-24Z average (average of 00Z, 06Z, 12Z, and 18Z cycles)

Do= daily observed

M0= monthly average of analyses (4 times per day)

Ma= monthly average of averages/accumulations (4 times per day)

Mg= monthly average of first guess (4 times per day)

Mo= monthly average of observations

Mr= monthly average of runoff occuring during 6 hours

V0= variance of analyses from monthly mean

Vo= variance of observations (4 times per day)

m0= monthly average of analyses (once analysis per day)

m6= monthly average of 6 hour forecasts (once forecast per day)

ma= monthly average of 0-6 hour average/accumulation (once average per day)

ob= observed

---------------------------------------

L= 2.5x2.5 lat-long grid (144x73)

G= Gaussian grid (192x94)

T= theta-surface cross-section (73x11), zonally averaged

P= pressure-surface cross-section (73x17), zonally averaged



*******************************************************************************

* Welcome to the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis CD-ROM. This CD-ROM contains one year *

* of selected analyses from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Project. *

* Problems and questions should be directed to: *

* Dr. Wesley Ebisuzaki *

* Climate Prediction Center W/NP52 *

* 5200 Auth Road Room 605 *

* Camp Springs, MD 20746 USA *

* email:wd51we@sun1.wwb.noaa.gov *

* ************************************************************************* *

* * To run the demo from Windows95, enter E:.BAT at the RUN * *

* * option from the START menu, assuming the cd-rom is device E:. * *

* * To run the demo from MS-DOS or the MS-DOS prompt, enter * *

* * E: * *

* * DEMO * *

* ************************************************************************* *

*******************************************************************************

TABLE OF CONTENTS

----- -- --------

I) Introduction

II) Data Organization and Access Software

III) The 30-Second Plot

IV) Other Important CD-ROM Documents

V) Changes

I. INTRODUCTION

This CD-ROM contains one year of selected fields from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis

Project. The goal of this reanalysis project is to provide the climate

research, monitoring, and modeling communities with analyses that span the last

40 years that have been generated from a stable, invariant analysis system.

To date, there has been little choice but to use analyses that supported

real-time weather forecasting, and changes in these systems introduced

inhomogeneities that could be erroneously interpreted as changes in the

'climate'. The quality of these analyses should be superior to earlier

'operational' analyses because:

o a state-of-the-art data assimilation system is used,

o more observations (later data cut-off time) are used,

o quality control has been improved, and

o the model/data assimilation procedure will remain essentially

unchanged during the entire NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis project

(1957-1995) and for the CDAS (Climate Diagnostics Assimilation

System). (Of course there will be some changes as the types and

numbers of observations changes over the years.)

A more comprehensive description of the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Project can be

found in file "TEXT.INF" (published BAMS, March 1996).

II DATA ORGANIZATION and ACCESS SOFTWARE

 

The vast majority of the reanalysis products on this CD were written in

GRIdded Binary (GRIB), which is a self-documenting, international standard.

For those who desire more information about GRIB, see documentation in file

"TEXT.TXT". However, since GRIB can be difficult to read without

the proper software, we have provided two methods for accessing the GRIB data

on this CD.

First, the PC version of "Grid Analysis and Display System" (GrADS) is

included. GrADS is an extremely powerful, useful, and easy-to-use data

manipulation and display package that was developed by Brian Doty of the

Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies in Calverton, Maryland. The Unix

versions of GrADS are available at no charge (see PROGRAMS.DOC).

The PC version of GrADS is in the "PROGRAMS" directory. This version

requires a PC with a 386 with a math co-processor, 486DX or a Pentium CPU.

For more information on GrADS, including instructions on obtaining the

latest version of pc-GrADS, see the file "PROGRAMS.DOC".

The second method to access GRIB data is through the use of a C language

program developed at NCEP called 'wgrib', which is also provided on this CD.

This program requires a C compiler and a 32-bit (or more) computer and was

written expressly for support of the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis project. Complete

documentation for 'wgrib' appears in file "PROGRAMS" on this CD.

'wgrib' performs the following functions:

o inventories files,

o deletes records,

o rearranges records,

o converts GRIB to IEEE, binary and text.

The data is stored in the following formats.

'Horizontal' fields (maps) are stored in GRIB on either:

a) 144 x 73, 2.5 x 2.5 degree grid

b) 192 x 94 Gaussian grid (flux data)

The first data point is for the northern-most point at 0E.

The second point is is slightly east of the first point.

Vertical Cross-sections are stored in f77 IEEE on either:

a) 73 x 17 vertical cross section

prs levels:

1000 925 850 700 600 500 400 300 250 200 150 100 70 50 30 20 10

b) 73 x 11 vertical cross section

theta surfaces:

270 280 290 300 315 330 350 400 450 550 650

For more information, see TEXT.IDS. A program,

PROGRAMSGRADGRAD.C can be used to make the files GrADS

compatible.

III The 30-Second Plot

One goal in the design of this CD-ROM was to make if fast to use. Suppose

you happen to be interested in the weather on February 2, 1962. You should

be able to take the CD-ROM for 1962, put it into your computer, and be looking

at the 500 mb heights in half a minute.

 

0) GrADS must be installed.

A version of GrADS for the PC is on the CD-ROM, see README.DOS.

Workstation versions are available from Brian Doty, COLA (see

PROGRAMS.MSG).

1) Insert CD-ROM in to PC, or workstation (10 seconds)

2) On a workstation, you must mount the cd-rom (system specific) (6 seconds)

Assume the cd-rom is mounted at /cdrom (Unix) or e: (MS-DOS).

3) Start GrADS (4 seconds)

4) Open a control file (5 seconds)

example: ga> open /cdrom/ctl/at00z12z/hgt.prs

(UNIX, lower-case cd-rom file names)

example: ga> open /cdrom/CTLUC/AT00Z12Z/HGT.PRS

(UNIX, upper-case cd-rom file names)

example: ga> open /cdrom/CTLSEMIC/AT00Z12Z/HGT.PRS;1

(UNIX, upper-case with semicolon cd-rom file names)

example: ga> open e:/ctl/at00z12z/hgt.prs

(MS-DOS, assuming cd-rom is device e:)

Note: to check the contents of the file, type

ga> query file

5) Display a plot (5 seconds)

example:

ga> set time 2feb62

ga> set lev 500

ga> d hgt

Note: The 30-second plot will only work on PC's and certain UNIX workstations

(see README.UNX).

A complete listing of the data files and contents can be found in

TEXTand TEXT.IDS.

IV) Other Important CD-ROM Documents

See file(s)

___________

1) About the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Project .... TEXT.INF

2) Directory structure of this CD ............ CD.ORG

3) Data organization, access information ..... README.DOS, README.UNX, CD.ORG

4) Table of data fields on this CD ........... TEXT.IDS

(units, filename interpretation, i.e., Rosetta stone)

(list of data files) TEXT

5) About GRIB (GRIdded Binary) ............... TEXT.TXT

6) Details about the Reanalysis Project ...... TEXT兡

7) Data Access Software ......................

- Analysis & Display ("GrADS") ........... PROGRAMS.MSG,

README.DOS

PROGRAMS.TXT

- Read/inventory/convert ("wgrib")......... PROGRAMS

V) Changes

5/15/98: GPCPRAIN.GRB (monthly observed/estimated precipitation)

from GPCP has been updated.

5/15/98: MRGDRAIN.GRB (monthly observed/estimated precipitation) has

been deleted.

5/15/98: CMPORAIN.GRB (monthly observed/estimated precipitation)

from Xie-Arkin has been added. This is the so-called cmapo product.

CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation

CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) is constructed

by merging gauge observations and 6 kinds of satellite estimates

(GPI, OPI, MSU, SSM/I scattering and SSM/I emission). First, to

reduce the random error inherent in the individual data sources,

the 6 kinds of satellite estimates are combined linearly through the

Maximum Likelyhood Estimation Method in which the combination coefficients

are inversely proportional to the individual error variances. The

output of this first step is then blended with the gauge data to remove

the bias, in which the first step output is used to define the 'shape'

while the gauge data are used to determine the magnitude of the

precipitation fields. Validation tests showed that the merged analysis

has improved quality compared to the individual data sources, with

both the random error and bias reduced significantly.

Reference:

Xie, P, and P.A. Arkin (1997): Global Precipitation: A 17-year

monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates

and numerical model outputs. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 2539-

2558.

5/15/98 upgraded wgrib from the ftp site

5/15/98 grib2ctl has been replaced by the perl version

9/23/96

GPCPRAIN.GRB and MRGDRAIN.GRB (monthly observed/estimated precipitation)

were both changed from the BAMS (1996) CD-ROM. Updated versions can be

found in DATA. For documentation see BAMS (1996).

9/23/96

EMC's corrected precipitation fields were added to DATAand

MONTHLY. (look for "Reanalysis" under http://www.ncep.noaa.gov).

This new field has units of Kg/m/m/s and GRIB identifier of 180.

9/23/96

Daily averaged snow amount (WEASD) was removed for lack of space.

Note that text and software may not reflect these last minute changes.

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